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Strain Phenotypic Characterization

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Phenotypic characterization of strains is a fundamental aspect of microbiology. It involves the identification and characterization of microorganisms based on their observable traits, such as colony morphology, growth rate, and biochemical properties. This information is essential for the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, the development of new drugs, and the study of microbial ecology and evolution.

At CD Biosynsis, we offer a range of services for the phenotypic characterization of strains. In this article, we will discuss our services and the advantages of working with us.

Phenotypic characterization of strains bearing MNase-tagged TFs. Figure 1: Phenotypic characterization of strains bearing MNase-tagged TFs. (Zentner G., et al. 2015)

Our Services for Phenotypic Characterization of Strains

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 Identification of Microorganisms

We offer several methods for the identification of microorganisms, including:

  • Classical microbiology techniques: observation of colony morphology, Gram staining, and other traditional methods.
  • Biochemical assays: use of specific reagents to identify the presence of enzymes or other compounds that are characteristic of certain microorganisms.
  • Molecular biology methods: use of DNA sequencing and other advanced techniques to identify microorganisms based on their genetic makeup.
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Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

We offer antimicrobial susceptibility testing using standardized methods, including:

  • Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method: a simple and cost-effective method to determine the susceptibility of microorganisms to a range of antibiotics.
  • Broth microdilution method: a more quantitative method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics for each microorganism.
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Serotyping and Strain Typing

  • Serotyping: use of specific antibodies to identify the presence of specific antigens on the surface of microorganisms.
  • Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE): a method that separates large DNA fragments by applying a pulsed electrical field to a gel matrix.
  • Multilocus sequence typing (MLST): a method that compares the DNA sequences of several housekeeping genes to determine the genetic relatedness of different strains of microorganisms.
  • Whole-genome sequencing (WGS): a method that sequences the entire genome of a microorganism to provide a comprehensive view of its genetic makeup.
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Growth Characterization

  • Monitoring growth curves: measurement of the growth of microorganisms over time to determine their growth rate and other characteristics.
  • Studying the effects of temperature, pH, and other environmental factors: assessment of the optimal conditions for the growth of microorganisms.
  • Studying the nutritional requirements of microorganisms: identification of the specific nutrients that microorganisms require for growth.
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Virulence Assays

  • Animal models: use of Galleria mellonella larvae, zebrafish embryos, and other animal models to assess the ability of microorganisms to cause disease.
  • Cell culture systems: use of human or animal cell lines to study the interaction between microorganisms and host cells.
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Biofilm Assays

  • Crystal violet assay: measurement of the biofilm biomass using a crystal violet stain.
  • Colony biofilm assay: assessment of the biofilm-forming ability of microorganisms on a solid surface.

Our Advantages

  • Experience and Expertise
  • State-of-the-Art Facilities
  • Customized Services
  • Competitive Pricing
  • Fast Turnaround Time
    • Fast turnaround times for our services, with results typically available within a few days.
    • Quick and efficient processing of samples to minimize turnaround time.
    • Rapid reporting of results to enable clients to make informed decisions quickly.

CD Biosynsis offers a range of services for the phenotypic characterization of strains. Our services include identification of microorganisms, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, serotyping and strain typing, growth characterization, virulence assays, and biofilm assays. Working with us offers several advantages, including experience and expertise, state-of-the-art facilities, customized services, fast turnaround times, and competitive pricing. Contact us today to learn more about our services and how we can help you with your phenotypic characterization needs.


  1. Maynaud G., et al. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of strains nodulating Anthyllis vulneraria in mine tailings, and proposal of Aminobacter anthyllidis sp. nov., the first definition of Aminobacter as legume-nodulating bacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 2012, 35(2): 65-72.
  2. Cai H., et al. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from different ecological niches suggests frequent recombination and niche specificity. Microbiology (Reading, England), 2007, 153(8): 2655-2665.
  3. Zentner G., et al. ChEC-seq kinetics discriminates transcription factor binding sites by DNA sequence and shape in vivo. Nature Communications, 2015, 6: 8733.

Please note that all services are for research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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