Synthetic Biology
Strain Engineering for Melanin

Strain Engineering for Melanin

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Strain Engineering for Melanin

CD Biosynsis works on the construction of engineered bacteria with high melanin production and the regulation of metabolic pathways using metabolic engineering and genetic engineering tools.

Advantages of Synthetic Biology-Driven Melanin Biosynthesis

Melanin is a class of biological macromolecules with complex structures that are widely present in living organisms. Melanin is the essence of hair, skin, plants, animals, fungi, etc. that exhibit black color. Melanin has antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiviral effects and has been used in medicine, cosmetics, food, and other fields. Currently, natural melanin is mainly obtained from materials such as black fungus, black rice, black sesame, and black beans. However, the growth and propagation of plant and animal materials are affected by season, climate, and origin, and there is a shortage of raw materials from which the amount of pigments extracted is limited and expensive. And through synthetic biology technology, the preparation of melanin by microorganisms can overcome many disadvantages of producing natural melanin from animal and plant materials, and achieve mechanized and industrial production.

Model of the natural rubber biosynthetic machinery. (Yamashita S, et al., 2020)Figure 1. General melanogenesis pathway in fungi and bacteria. (Singh S, et al., 2021)

What We Provide

Featured Services

  • We offer screening services for high melanin-producing strains.
  • We offer services for the exploration of optimal formulations and optimum conditions for microbial fermentation.
  • We provide services for the improvement of melanin-producing engineered bacteria.


  • Melanin.
  • Melanin-Producing Bacteria.

How We Can Help

Genetic Modification of Melanin-Producing Bacteria

Based on the main chemical pathways and metabolic processes of melanin synthesis in organisms, we are able to use metabolic engineering tools for the construction of microbial melanin strains and the regulation of metabolic pathways. The specific microbial melanin genetic engineering services that we can provide are listed below.

  • We are able to introduce a series of genes encoding synthetic enzymes that express melanin into microorganisms to construct engineered bacteria with high melanin production.
  • We are able to introduce genes encoding microbial melanin synthases to alter metabolic pathways and promote melanin synthesis.
  • We are able to use genetic modifications to transfer regulatory subunits in microorganisms that allow for feedback regulation to regulate gene expression based on the amount of metabolic intermediates, reducing the negative effects due to metabolic imbalances.

Optimization of Microbial Fermentation for Melanin Production

The production of melanin by microbial fermentation is influenced by multiple factors, not only related to the strain itself but also influenced by the composition of the culture medium and culture conditions. We are able to provide services for the optimization of fermentation conditions for melanin-producing genetically engineered bacteria. We help customers optimize the medium conditions according to different microbial species, select the appropriate carbon source, nitrogen source, inorganic salt, and growth factor, and also optimize the culture conditions, and select the appropriate temperature and pH.

Applications of Melanin

CD Biosynsis can develop tailored tools and customized approaches to harness the power of synthetic biology to drive melanin production and meet the needs of customers in a variety of industries.

  • As a novel natural drug carrier.
  • As a food additive.
  • In the field of cosmetics, used in the preparation of sunscreen and hair tanning cream.
  • For pest control.
  • For the treatment of certain neurological diseases related to melanin deficiency.

Want to Learn More?

CD Biosynsis provides the most comprehensive and efficient solutions for synthetic biology workflows. We are committed to helping our customers solve all problems encountered in melanin production to advance their applications in a wide range of fields. Each of our deliverables will undergo a rigorous quality inspection test to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the results. If you are interested in our services or have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us.


  1. Singh S, et al. Microbial melanin: Recent advances in biosynthesis, extraction, characterization, and applications. Biotechnol Adv. 2021 Dec; 53: 107773.
Please note that all services are for research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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