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Peptidoglycan Strain Engineering

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CD Biosynsis excels in delivering an all-encompassing service dedicated to peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We offer a precise and customizable strategy for manipulating the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway, enabling researchers and industrial sectors to investigate innovative applications in antimicrobial advancement, biotechnology, and various other domains.

Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. Fig 1. Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan. (Gilmore M S, et al., 2014)


Peptidoglycan, an essential component of bacterial cell walls, plays a pivotal role in maintaining structural integrity, shape, and protection for a wide range of bacteria. This complex macromolecule is composed of linear chains of alternating N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM) residues, cross-linked by short peptide chains, forming a mesh-like structure around the bacterial cell membrane. The unique composition and structure of peptidoglycan make it a prime target for the development of antimicrobial agents. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is a highly intricate and tightly regulated biological process essential for bacterial survival.

Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Pathway

The peptidoglycan biosynthesis route constitutes an exceedingly intricate and meticulously governed mechanism, playing an indispensable role in the persistence and structural robustness of bacterial cells. This pathway can be deconstructed into numerous pivotal stages, with each phase orchestrated by distinct enzymes and intermediary compounds.

Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Pathway.

  • Cytoplasmic Precursor Synthesis. The first step involves the synthesis of the NAG and NAM monomers from glucose and other precursor molecules within the bacterial cytoplasm.
  • Translocation to Periplasm. These precursor molecules are then transported to the periplasmic space, the region between the inner and outer bacterial membranes.
  • Peptide Side Chain Assembly. In the periplasm, enzymes assemble the peptide side chains that will cross-link the glycan chains of peptidoglycan.
  • Glycan Chain Polymerization. Glycan chains are elongated and cross-linked by enzymes known as penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). This process provides the structural integrity of the bacterial cell wall.
  • Regulation and Modulation. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is tightly regulated to adapt to environmental changes and stresses, making it a potential target for antimicrobial agents and biotechnological interventions.

How We Can Help

Customized Pathway Manipulation

We provide precise control over peptidoglycan biosynthesis, allowing for the creation of custom strains with specific modifications, including alterations in peptidoglycan composition and structure.

Antimicrobial Development

Our expertise aids in the development of novel antibiotics and antimicrobial agents by targeting key enzymes and processes within the peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway.

Biotechnology Applications

We assist in the development of bacterial strains optimized for biotechnology applications, such as biofuel production, enzyme secretion, and protein expression.

Research Tools

Our services offer valuable research tools, enabling scientists to study the fundamental aspects of bacterial cell wall biology and cell wall-targeting compounds.

Types of Peptidoglycan We Can Biosynthesize

Types of Peptidoglycan We Can Biosynthesize

Whether your requirements involve tailored steroids, bioprocess advancement, quality assurance, or collaborative scientific inquiry, we stand as your dependable ally in harnessing the potential of biosynthesis. Contact us to discover how our state-of-the-art technology can enhance your endeavors and innovations significantly.


  1. Gilmore, M. S.; et al. (2014). Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection [Internet].

Please note that all services are for research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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