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Strain Engineering for Citramalic Acid

Strain Engineering for Citramalic Acid

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Strain Engineering for Citramalic Acid

CD Biosynsis is committed to helping customers achieve continuous production of citric acid based on a synthetic biology platform, and to improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of production of citramalic acid.


Citramalic acid is an important organic acid that is widely distributed in plant, animal, and microbial cells. Natural citramalic acid is found in the fruits of plants such as lemons and pineapples and the bones, muscles, and blood of animals. Citramalic acid has a wide range of uses in food, chemical, pharmaceutical, construction, leather, detergent, and other industries. Currently, microbial fermentation is the main way to produce citramalic acid. The types of microorganisms used for industrial citric acid production are mainly Aspergillus and yeast. However, Aspergillus and yeast strains are mostly intolerant to high temperatures and require large amounts of cooling water to control the fermentation temperature during citramalic acid production. Therefore, synthetic biology-driven development services for citramalic acid production are of great importance.

Figure 1. Metabolic pathways for citramalate synthesis in Escherichia coli. (Parimi NS, et al., 2017)Figure 1. Metabolic pathways for citramalate synthesis in Escherichia coli. (Parimi NS, et al., 2017)

What We Provide

Our scientists hope to help our customers further understand the citramalic acid production pathway of microorganisms through transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. We are able to use genetic engineering, protein engineering, and metabolic engineering tools to help our customers break through bottlenecks in citramalic acid biosynthesis.

Genetic Engineering

We are able to use genetic engineering tools to help our customers select and breed citramalic acid producing strains with excellent traits.

Metabolic Engineering

We are able to optimize the metabolic pathways of natural citramalic acid producing strains using metabolic engineering tools to improve citramalic acid production.

Protein Engineering

We are able to optimize the citramalic acid synthesis pathway by using protein engineering tools to design key enzymes in the citramalic acid synthesis process that contain specific mutations.

Cell Engineering

We are able to help our customers construct drug-resistant, high-temperature, high-yield citramalic acid production strains using cell engineering tools.

Proteomics Analysis

We use proteomic analysis to help our customers gain insight into the mechanism of citramalic acid production at the protein expression level and to provide a basis for strain modification.


  • Citramalic acid production microorganism.
  • Citramalic acid.

How We Can Help

Development of Synthetic Biology Chassis for Citramalic Acid Production

Our citramalic acid production services are based on microbial fermentation methods. The following table shows the microbial chassis we can offer for citramalic acid production. If you have other microbial chassis of interest for citramalic acid production, please contact us directly.

Aspergillus nige Yarrowia lipolytic Candida lipolytic Escherichia coli

Screening of Strains with Excellent Traits

  • We are able to perform physical or chemical mutagenesis of citramalic acid-producing bacteria, and also provide high throughput screening services to allow our customers to obtain high-yielding and excellent citramalic acid-producing bacteria.
  • After several physical and chemical mutagenesis of citramalic acid-producing bacteria, it is difficult to increase the yield further. We are able to help our customers break the cumulative effect of long-term mutagenesis through protoplast fusion technology.
  • We are able to use genetic engineering tools to modify genes encoding key enzymes in the citramalic acid biosynthesis pathway to construct engineered strains with low by-product production and high citramalic acid synthesis.

Construction of Immobilized Fermentation System

We can help our customers to build and optimize immobilized fermentation systems. By establishing a fermentation process with a high concentration of citramalic acid-producing bacteria and uninterrupted production, we can save production and time costs for citric acid fermentation.

Morphological Regulation of Filamentous Fungi

The morphology of mycelium significantly affected the yield of citramalic acid-producing bacteria. We are able to use molecular biology techniques to regulate the expression of morphological genes to help our customers improve citramalic acid production.

Applications of Citramalic Acid

CD Biosynsis can develop tailored tools and customized approaches to harness the power of synthetic biology to drive citramalic acid production and meet the needs of customers in a variety of industries.

  • As an acidifier, flavoring agent, preservative, and freshness preservative for food.
  • As an anticoagulant.
  • As a reagent for chemical analysis, chromatographic analysis reagent.
  • Used to prepare buffer solutions.
  • Useful in the treatment of heart disease and liver protection.

Want to Learn More?

CD Biosynsis provides the most comprehensive and efficient solutions for synthetic biology workflows. We are committed to helping our customers solve all problems encountered in citramalic acid production to advance their applications in a wide range of fields. Each of our deliverables will undergo a rigorous quality inspection test to ensure the reliability and accuracy of the results. If you are interested in our services or have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact us.


  1. Parimi NS, et al. Eliminating acetate formation improves citramalate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli. Microb Cell Fact. 2017 Jun 21; 16(1): 114.
Please note that all services are for research use only. Not intended for any clinical use.

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